Nandini Nair* and Enrique Gongora Pages 183 - 188 ( 6 )
Background: The concept of antioxidant therapies assumes high importance as oxidative stress is associated with cardiovascular aging via endothelial dysfunction. This review focuses on exploring the interaction between nrf-2 and ADMA in influencing the nitric oxide pathway and cardiovascular function.Objective: A systematic review of literature from 1990 to 2016 was conducted using Pubmed and Google Scholar. The literature suggests a strong influence of nrf-2 activation on up regulation of DDAH I which degrades ADMA, the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The resulting decrease of ADMA would in turn enhance nitric oxide (NO) production. This would support endothelial function by adequate NO production and homeostasis of endothelial function. Conclusion: As NO production has many positive pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, such an interaction could be utilized for designing molecular therapeutics. The targets for therapy need not be limited to activation of nrf-2. Modulation of molecules downstream such as DDAH I can be used to regulate ADMA levels. Most current literature is supported by animal studies. The concept of antioxidant therapies needs to be tested in well-defined randomized control trials. The biochemical basis of nrf-2 activation needs to be substantiated in human studies.
NRF-2, ADMA, DDAH, oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), homeostasis.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, Memorial Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Hollywood, FL 33031