Chakradhari Inampudi, Paulino Alvarez, Rabea Asleh and Alexandros Briasoulis* Pages 60 - 66 ( 7 )
Background: Several risk factors including Ischemic heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, high output Heart Failure (HF) from shunting through vascular hemodialysis access, and anemia, contribute to development of HF in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Guidelinedirected medical and device therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) has not been extensively studied and may have limited safety and efficacy in patients with ESRD.
Results: Maintenance of interdialytic and intradialytic euvolemia is a key component of HF management in these patients but often difficult to achieve. Beta-blockers, especially carvedilol which is poorly dialyzed is associated with cardiovascular benefit in this population. Despite paucity of data, Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) when appropriately adjusted by dose and with close monitoring of serum potassium can also be administered to these patients who tolerate beta-blockers. Mineralocorticoid receptors in patients with HFrEF and ESRD have been shown to reduce mortality in a large randomized controlled trial without any significantly increased risk of hyperkalemia. Implantable Cardiac-defibrillators (ICDs) should be considered for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with HFrEF and ESRD who meet the implant indications. Furthermore in anemic iron-deficient patients, intravenous iron infusion may improve functional status. Finally, mechanical circulatory support with leftventricular assist devices may be related to increased mortality risk and the presence of ESRD poses a relative contraindication to further evaluation of these devices.
Therapeutic approach, heart failure, end stage renal disease, hemodialysis, beta-blockers, ESRD.
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA