Mario Naranjo*, Kevin Bryan Lo, Kenechukwu Mezue and Janani Rangaswami Pages 3 - 11 ( 9 )
Background: Pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon in patients with renal disease and vice versa; therefore, it influences treatments and outcomes. There is a large body of literature on pulmonary hypertension in patients with kidney disease, its prognostic implications, economic burden, and management strategies. However, the converse, namely the hemodynamic effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney function (acute and chronic kidney injury) is less studied and described. There is also increasing interest in the effects of pulmonary hypertension on kidney transplant outcomes.
The relationship is a complex phenomenon and multiple body systems and mechanisms are involved in its pathophysiology. Although the definition of pulmonary hypertension has evolved over time with the understanding of multiple interplays between the heart, lungs, kidneys, etc; there is limited evidence to provide a specific treatment strategy when kidneys and lungs are affected at the same time. Nevertheless, available evidence appears to support new therapeutics and highlights the importance of individualized approach.
There is sufficient research showing that the morbidity and mortality from PH are driven by the influence of the pulmonary hemodynamic dysfunction on the kidneys.
Conclusion: This concise review focuses on the effects of pulmonary hypertension on the kidneys, including, the patho-physiological effects of pulmonary hypertension on acute kidney injury, progression of CKD, effects on kidney transplant outcomes, progression of kidney disease in situations such as post LVAD implantation and novel diagnostic indices. We believe a review of this nature will fill in an important gap in understanding the prognostic implication of pulmonary hypertension on renal disease, and help highlight this important component of the cardio-reno-pulmonary axis.
Pulmonary hypertension, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, transplantation, pathophysiology, PAH.
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA