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Acute Myocardial Infarction in Systemic Mastocytosis: Case Report With Literature Review on the Role of Inflammatory Process in Acute Coronary Syndrome

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Ayman Battisha*, Khalid Sawalha, Bader Madoukh, Omar Sheikh, Karim Doughem, Mohammad Al-Akchar, Mohammed Al-Sadawi and Shakil Shaikh   Pages 333 - 337 ( 5 )

Abstract:


Background: Systemic Mastocytosis (SM) is a disorder of excessive mast cell infiltration in multiple organ tissues. Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for developing acute coronary syndrome. In addition to lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of plaque rupture and activating the thrombosis cascade. The Mast cells contribution to plaque destabilization has been well established in multiple animal and human studies. In a recent study, SM has been proven to be associated with a higher incidence of acute coronary syndrome even with lower plasma lipids levels. The study showed that 20% of patients with SM had cardiovascular events compared to only 6% in the control group with adjustment to all cardiac risk factors.

Case: We presented a patient with no risk factors for heart disease other than old age and history of SM who developed acute myocardial infarction.

Conclusion: SM can be life-threatening and can result in ACS, anaphylactic reaction, syncope, or cardiac arrest. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurrence in the setting of inflammatory conditions, such as SM and KS, and vice versa, where SM should be considered or ruled out in patients who suffer from anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest or myocardial infarction.

Keywords:

SM, electrocardiogram, subclinical hypothyroidism, patient, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome.

Affiliation:

University of Massachusetts Medical School—Baystate, Springfield, MA 01107, University of Massachusetts Medical School—Baystate, Springfield, MA 01107, Overland Park Regional Medical Center-HCA Midwest Health, Kansas, KS 66215, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX78229, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62701, Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203

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