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Cardiac Complications Attributed to Hydroxychloroquine: A Systematic Review of the Literature Pre-COVID-19

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Georgi Fram, Dee D. Wang*, Kelly Malette, Pedro Villablanca, Guson Kang, Kent So, Mir B. Basir, Arfaat Khan, John E. McKinnon, Marcus Zervos and William W. O’Neill   Pages 319 - 327 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Introduction: Hydroxychloroquine has been used for rheumatological diseases for many decades and is considered a safe medication. With the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been an increase in reports associating cardiotoxicity with hydroxychloroquine. It is unclear if the cardiotoxic profile of hydroxychloroquine is previously underreported in the literature or is it a manifestation of COVID-19 and therapeutic interventions. This manuscript evaluates the incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine prior to the onset of COVID-19.

Methods: PubMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for keywords derived from MeSH terms prior to April 9, 2020. Inclusion eligibility was based on appropriate reporting of cardiac conditions and study design.

Results: A total of 69 articles were identified (58 case reports, 11 case series). The majority (84%) of patients were female, with a median age of 49.2 (range 16-92) years. 15 of 185 patients with cardiotoxic events were in the setting of acute intentional overdose. In acute overdose, the median ingestion was 17,857 ± 14,873 mg. 2 of 15 patients died after acute intoxication. In patients with long-term hydroxychloroquine use (10.5 ± 8.9 years), new onset systolic heart failure occurred in 54 of 155 patients (35%) with median cumulative ingestion of 1,493,800 ± 995,517 mg. The majority of patients improved with the withdrawal of hydroxychloroquine and standard therapy.

Conclusion: Millions of hydroxychloroquine doses are prescribed annually. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiac complications attributed to hydroxychloroquine were uncommon. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system to understand the presence or absence of potential medication interactions with hydroxychloroquine in this new pathophysiological state.

Keywords:

Clinical cardiology, hydroxychloroquine, infectious disease, COVID-19, cardiac complications, SLE.

Affiliation:

Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, Divison of Infectious Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MMichigan, MI 48202, Divison of Infectious Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MMichigan, MI 48202, Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202

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